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Discovering India’s Biggest Financial Scams

Discovering India’s Biggest Financial Scams

Financial fraud occurs when someone takes money or other assets through deception or conducting criminal activity. Understanding the various types of financial fraud can be helpful in protecting yourself. Typically, investors and shareholders are the victims of financial scams.

Recent Updates

RBI recorded bank frauds totalling more than 302.5 billion rupees, or INR 30,000 crore, in the year 2023. 

The current figure is detrimental, and the public should be cautioned. This represents a reversal in the trend of rising bank frauds in India over the past ten years, both in terms of the total number of frauds and their monetary value. 

Biggest Financial Scams in India

1. Financial Scams are not new to the people; they have been ongoing in various cities and towns, causing India to hit economies across the globe. The scams stain the reputation of the country. The scams are considered criminal activity conducted by an individual or gang.

2. These frauds frequently involve well-planned initiatives that are later revealed to be fake, severely hurting investors. An important part of India’s financial environment, the stock market has fostered deception, which has damaged many people’s trust. 

3. Numerous incidents have surfaced that expose Ponzi schemes, in which investors are lured in by promises of profits, only to have their money  disappear. 

4. These financial blunders highlight how crucial it is to carefully examine projects, comprehend the stock market, and exercise caution while handling money to guard against situations like these.

5. There are multiple financial scams that have taken place in the history of India, mainly the stock investors who made these blundered scams.

India’s Biggest Financial Scams

The Satyam Computers Scam

The Satyam Computers Scam is considered as one of the biggest financial scams in India between the years 2006-2008. The scam is reported to have taken place on January 7, 2009 when the founder and chairman of Satyam Computers Ramalinga Raju disclosed and confessed to fraud in the accounting balance sheets of worth rupees 7000 crores.

Following the discovery of the scam, the government held an auction to sell the business in the best interests of investors and more than 50,000 Satyam Computers workers. After being purchased by Tech Mahindra, it went by the moniker Mahindra Satyam before merging with Tech Mahindra. According to Sebi’s investigation at the time, the Satyam scandal ultimately proved to be a case of financial misstatements totalling about Rs 12,320 crore.

Ketan Parekh and the Stock Market Scam of 2001

Ketan Parekh, a chartered accountant by profession, purchased the stakes from not-so-known market capitalization companies and lifted the prices through circular trading with other traders. He applied the concept of pump and dump scheme. To raise share prices, he oversaw money from banks, institutional investors, and promoters.

He took loans and lay orders. Ketan was bankrupt when the market crashed; as he faced losses, he failed to return the loans that he took from the banks. Bank of India filed a case against Ketan Parekh for issuing pay orders of 137 crores. He was arrested and tried in court for performing insider trading, share price manipulation, and duping institutional investors.

Ketan Parekh was immediately arrested and tried in court. He has been prohibited from trading in the Bombay Stock Exchange for 15 years, i.e. till 2017. Also, he was sentenced to one year of rigorous imprisonment for his economic crimes.

Harshad Mehta and the Stock Market Scam

Harshad Mehta, a Gujarati stock broker, committed the biggest ever money market scam in India at that point in time, amounting to nearly 5000 crore rupees in 1992. He played the scam by taking advantage of loopholes in the banking system; Mehta took loans from various banks and put them in the stock market. He would then use RFD ready-forward agreements to increase the price of company shares. Thousands of investors were impacted by the crash of the Indian stock market, which was triggered by a systematic stock scam.

He began serving as an intermediary to facilitate ready-forward trade transactions between Indian banks in the early 1990s. To artificially inflate the stock prices, he would raise money from the banks and then unlawfully invest it in stocks that were listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange. 

On June 16, 1993, Mehta stirred up controversy once more when he declared in public that he had given Rupees One Crore as a party gift to the then-prime minister and president of the Congress, Mr. P.V. Narasimha Rao in exchange for getting him off the hook.

Mehta used the banking system to embezzle about Rs 1,000 crore so that he could purchase stocks on the Bombay Stock Exchange. His money-pushing caused the markets to keep rising to all-time highs. Retail investors emulated the “Big Bull” by buying similar things to what Mehta was. The Sensex flew into a frenzy between April 1991 and April 1992, returning 274 percent and rising from 1,194 points to 4,467. 

For the index, that is the highest annual return. When the State Bank of India revealed a deficiency in government securities, the scheme was exposed. This prompted an inquiry, which subsequently revealed that Mehta had tampered with the system to the tune of about Rs 3,500 crore. On August 6, 1992, following the scam was exposed, the markets crashed by 72 percent, leading to one of the biggest falls and a bearish phase that lasted for two years.

Nirav Modi, The Punjab National Bank Fraud

Born and brought up in Antwerp, the diamond capital of the world, Nirav Modi is a third-generation diamantaire who ranked 57th on the Forbes Billionaire List in 2017. He is accused of committing fraud worth rupees 14000 crores with his uncle Mehul Choksi.

In 2018, a PNB officer filed a complaint against three people for submitting fraudulent papers and taking advantage of the neglect of responsibilities. After the conduct of his first fraudulent guarantee papers in 2011, he managed to receive more such guarantees over the next 6.5 years. 

Once the ED took over the situation, many other details came forward, prompting Nirav Modi to flee from the UK after the government labelled him a fugitive economic offender in December 2019.

Saradha Scam

The Saradha Scam was held in the year between 2003 and 2011. The scam impacted both upper- and middle-class investors. The chairman of Saradha Company issued bonds and debentures to raise funds for the company. 

Although Saradha had disguised itself initially as a chit fund, it began by issuing debentures and redeemable preference bonds to the public. This was done in violation of the SEBI rules that companies raise capital from more than 50 people without issuing a prospectus and Balance Sheet.

And he makes Rs. 4,000 crores from this. After learning about some irregularities at Saradha Company, SEBI informed the West Bengal government. Sarah created a web of businesses inside of it to mislead SEBI. Following the collapse of the Ponzi scheme, numerous individuals, including politicians, were implicated. Arrested was Sudipta Sen.

Reporting a Financial Fraud if in Case

It is essential to report any kind of financial scam that has happened to you. There are certain steps that can be taken to report a complaint against a financial scam, such as:

1. Reporting to the local police crime branch.

2. Your bank should report the crime and explore any possible resources the bank has available.

3. Visiting a local district attorney.

4. Reaching out to a national fraud helpline is also to be considered.

So, while there have been many instances of fraud over the years, none have matched the magnitude of those on this list. Not only did they have a huge impact on India’s economy, but they also forced the government to come up with stringent laws for the future.


The need of the hour is to equip our businesses against fraud risks to have a steady awareness and raise public awareness of the increasing number of financial frauds. To better stand on the safe side, it is beneficial to have transparency in organizations for better management. Making sure to conduct proper financial balance sheet maintenance of your business is needed.


What is the biggest corruption in India?
The Harshad Mehta Scam (1992) is considered as one of the biggest financial corruption scams considered to have taken place in India.

Are financial frauds on the rise in India?
According to the study conducted by Forrester Consulting, there has been a significant upswing in fraudulent activities in India in recent times. The findings reveal that year-on-year fraud losses are increasing for nearly two-thirds 64% of respondents, with financial services organizations reporting the biggest increase in losses.

Why are bank frauds increasing?
The poor level of checks and balances in the banking system is one of the reasons for increasing banking fraud in India. The data showed that banks, both private and public sector, reported a total of 4,62,733 frauds between 2013-2023.

What are financial frauds in India?
There are various forms of financial fraud and scams in India, such as bank fraud, investment fraud, insurance fraud, mortgage fraud, lending fraud, Ponzi schemes, etc.


Anant Bengani, brings expertise as a Chartered Accountant and a leading figure in finance and accounting education. He’s dedicated to empowering learners with the finest financial knowledge and skills.
Accountants’ Demand Keeps Growing in 2024

Accountants’ Demand Keeps Growing in 2024

People thought that accountants were for only counting numbers and reporting finances in the early days. Nowadays, the accountant demand in 2024 has changed. They can become partners and help their partners navigate strategic financial regulations. They can also help organizations in making decisions and driving growth.

Why Accountants Are in High Demand

There are various reasons why accountants are in high demand. Everyone needs accountants for their businesses and industries. A professional accountant can make informed decisions for your organization. Here are all the factors why there is an accountant demand in 2024:

Global Financial Complexity:

Today, everyone wants to expand their business on a global level. If your company is to develop on a worldwide level, you have to hire a professional who can manage your finances. If your industries will go live at the international level, the financial complexities will come. You have to hire an accountant who can navigate your financial systems. 

Regulatory Changes and Compliance:

Businesses and their regulations are evolving day by day. It will force companies to stay updated according to the regulatory changes. An accountant can keep them up to date in the evolving market and manage your business finances.

Business people and accountants should cooperate in evolving global markets. Accountants should make sure organizations follow those regulatory changes. They can use their accounting skills to prevent businesses from financial risks. They can also make sure to increase trust in global markets.

Technological Evolution:

People use advanced technologies to grow their businesses on a global market. Nowadays, many new technologies are introduced to the business world. The accountants have to upgrade their knowledge in blockchain and AI (Artificial Intelligence).

You can’t say that traditional accounting is the only source for accountants. They have to learn many advanced accounting & finance technology softwares. If they understand how to integrate technologies into finances, they can grow any global business.

Data-Driven Decision-Making:

Everyone needs data in their daily life. Students need data for their studies, like their syllabus and books. An accountant needs data for the financial aspects, like Excel sheets of debit and credit data. 

Accountants can use their skills to examine the industry’s finance data and explain it to the finance manager. This can be done in the form of conducting financial analysis, budgeting & forecasting, cost analysis etc.

Accountant Demand in 2024

Navigating the Road to a Successful Accounting Career

It would help if you remember that you must create a baseline before enrolling in an accounting career or working with reputed accounting firms. You have to keep an interest in numbers. If you like playing with numbers, you will have success in an accounting career. An accountant career gives you competitive salaries. So, you need to be highly skillful to get a job in this field and succeed.

Here is a list of skills that you need to excel in your accounting career:

1. Skills in Workplace:

You need to have other workplace skills other than numbers. Here are some skills for your workplace:

  • Analytical Thinking and A Problem Solver
  • Good Written and Verbal Communication
  • Having good skills in Accounting Software and Technologies
  • Attention to small details
  • Managing different accountancy tools
  • Tech-savvy 

2. Bachelor’s Degree is a must:

You must earn your bachelor’s degree in accounting or related fields. For example:

  • Economics
  • Business Law
  • Statistics and Mathematics
  • Financial Accounting
  • Audits
  • Income Tax Accounting, etc.

3. Internships:

You have to do internships or entry-level jobs for accounting experience. You will need to learn both theoretical and practical accounting. You can do Bookkeeping and payroll Administrator jobs and other jobs where you get experience in financial planning and reporting.

4. Master’s Degree:

As an accountant professional, you can earn more with a master’s degree and the regular skills mentioned above. If you want to make more, enroll in a master’s degree. You can use distance or online learning methods if you are doing jobs. A Master’s degree can provide the skills required to become a Certified Public Accountant.

5. Certified Public Accountant (CPA):

If you become a CPA, you will earn more money and financial skills.


  • A bachelor’s degree
  • Minimum Age (vary depending on which state you live in)
  • You have to pass an Ethics Exam
  • A required number of hours you experience or study in accounting-related fields

You can earn other certifications other than CPA:

  • CMA – Certified Management Accountant
  • CIA – Certified Internal Auditors
  • EA – Enrolled Agent

6. Ready for a Job:

Now that you have all the prerequisites, you can start your accounting career. You can ask your classmates, friends, and other people for recommendations. As an experienced person with all interpersonal and other skills, you can even create an accounting firm and start doing business.

How Zell will Help you Achieve your Dream Career

If you want to start a career in accounting jobs, Zell will help you in many ways. You can learn these courses:

You can focus on only accounting courses and get professional accounting teachers to help you. You can attend a lot of webinars on accounting and financing. If you have any doubts about your career, you can seek help from a career expert.

Do you want to enroll in a corporate training program? You can get corporate training in US GAAP, Power BI, etc. The courses by Zell offer you the highest level of knowledge and expertise so that you get jobs in different sectors with high salaries. 


Accountant Demand in 2024 will grow in the international market. If you plan to make a career in accounting, focus on going on the right path. You now know why accountants are in high demand and a career path for accounting. You must keep focusing on the courses suggested to gain knowledge before doing an accounting job, not to mention skills like using different tools, getting more knowledge on tech niches, compliance, and acquiring knowledge on different sectors that need finance professionals for financial planning. 


Will the demand for accountants increase?
Yes, the demand for accountants will increase. It will boost because technology and AI will help to account in the business world. More and more startup businesses are rising, so the demand for accountants is rising.
What is the future of financial accountants?
Smart technology is the future of financial accountants. Smart technologies integrated with AI Bots will save time and energy for the industries giving new opportunities to the budding accountants.
Is accounting still a good field?
Accounting jobs will always continue as national and international firms will always need some financial professionals for financial planning and financial reporting, so it is a good field to choose for a long-term career.
Is accounting safe for the future?
Accounting is safe for the future because studies show it ranks with other jobs with high salaries. Also, the average salary and wide range of job opportunities present till now explain that an accountant job will always be there.


Anant Bengani, brings expertise as a Chartered Accountant and a leading figure in finance and accounting education. He’s dedicated to empowering learners with the finest financial knowledge and skills.
Will AI Replace Humans in Finance?

Will AI Replace Humans in Finance?

Blockchain technology for financial security and advancement in mobile payment is bringing the finance industry to the future. AI in finance seems promising to make most of the complex financial operations a breeze. Integration of AI tools and components in finance company models can streamline the key operations run by human finance experts. But will AI replace humans in the finance sector? Sure AI generative tools are gaining momentum in the last few years with their competent capabilities and expanding applications.

AI can capture the collective imagination, additionally, AI voice assistants can improve daily interactions, and it is also making predictive analytics possible. It is leaving the experts to wonder how AI integration may affect the job roles of humans in the financial organization. Read on to make the verdict on AI and human resource roles in the financial sector.

Risks That Robots Will Replace Humans? Not So Fast

Sure, the automation and machine learning capability of Artificial Intelligence tools can enhance efficiency and productivity in various fields. However, there are various critical aspects of human qualities that machines can’t replicate as they follow human commands. AI systems work like robots that have significant capabilities of imitating the human brain and action. But will robots replace humans? Not so fast. AI tools will struggle in scenarios where their training data deviates. 

They only use predefined parameters. So, AI is completely foreign to handling any uncertainty or unpredicted situations. It is a distinct human characteristic to adapt to any unforeseen situation. Humans understand the emotional and empathetic nuances that machines can’t do. The AI technology is based on mimicking the human brain-inspired approach.

AI Imitates the Human Brain

The human brain is the most efficient and complex intelligence system in the world today. However, tech scientists take brain-like ability as a motivation for creating machine intelligence of AI. Hence, there is a great collaboration between neuroscience and artificial intelligence. The AI imitates the human brain’s neural networks. It is the AI models’ algorithms, functions and architectures that mimic the neuro-synaptic framework.

Moreover, AI also mimics the neurobiological hierarchical structure of the human brain. However, they can hardly perform satisfactorily in businesses, trading, health, etc., sectors, to name a few, as they are not real neural systems. The artificial neural networks of AI in the finance sector can work on forecasting future stock prices and algorithmic trading. Many of its innovative uses are yet to come into the mainstream.

AI in Banking

How Does Artificial Intelligence Affect The Financial Sector Businesses?

AI is constantly evolving with more new application cases. It also includes finance corporate cultures. Finance teams can use AI in finance to analyze massive financial data in a jiffy. You can also use AI tools to automate the process of routine tasks such as budget approvals. Here is how AI is helping finance companies more value:

Efficiency and Speed

AI tools and applications are usually meant for completing repetitive tasks. Moreover, companies can make quick financial decisions by checking financial data. Experts can complete credit assessments faster and offer customer support with AI assistance.

Error Reduction

It ultimately reduces any human error and provides real-time insights into the market movement. AI engages algorithms and uses massive datasets to learn and check any faulty patterns and errors in financial transactions. Moreover, AI can easily detect any fraud and minimize potential risks.

Predictive Analytics

AI can streamline regulatory processes by automating data analysis, minimizing risks, and aiding in financial trend forecasting. All these lead to better financial decision-making. Hence, AI-powered predictive analytics can optimize investment ability in a secure financial environment.

The Limitations of Artificial Intelligence in Finance 

Many advanced AI models that have deep learning neural networks are not reliable. Developers are still finding it challenging to learn how the AI reaches a specific decision. Transparency and accountability are crucial in the financial sector. AI can have limitations as developers can’t interpret its action. Regulators and financial institutions need to explain AI-driven decisions and ensure they meet the regulatory requirements. However, human intervention is needed to verify the problems even if AI is sometimes used in the finance markets, or while offering any financial services. 

Final Thoughts: Will AI Take Over Finance Jobs?

It is common for financial experts and professionals to feel concerned about possible job displacement with robots taking over. However, most individuals have misconceptions that AI-powered systems match and surpass human cognition. It tries to mimic the human brain’s neural structure as programmed to generate the results on command.

The AI models have human brain architecture to perform like a machine and complete tasks fast. But now you know this AI in finance and robot takeover are not completely convincing. AI efficiency in the financial sector is mostly about removing repetitive tasks and low-impact tasks. Therefore, finance experts can have more free time to focus on high-impact tasks.

We at Zell Education prepare our students with the basics of the finance system for the risks that may come from AI and generative AI with time.  


Is AI the future of finance?

AI tools can perform complex financial tasks that are repetitive for humans faster and more efficiently. Companies will improve their trading decisions with accurate financial analysis and predictive analytics. Moreover, finance companies can automate various finance processes for consumers.

Is AI a threat to finance?

AI is suitable for completing repetitive tasks of finance experts but not for all financial tasks. It poses a high concern for security concerns and data privacy. AI in the banking sector is essential for sensitive financial information protection. However, AI can increase cybersecurity vulnerability in the system.

Will AI replace humans in banking?

It is less likely for AI to replace humans in banking. Human involvement is essential in tracking cyber threats, market trends and understanding market nuances. AI is still unconvincing to give that information accurately without any bias or regulatory compliance. Hence, human expertise is still relevant in investment banking.

Will AI replace human traders?

Companies in the financial industry can use predictive analytics AI tools for trading decision-making. The tool can monitor market trends and give information on real-time changes. So you can manage risks efficiently. But AI can’t replace human traders as the machines don’t understand the unique market nuances.


Satyamedh Nandedkar, a seasoned finance professional, holds ACCA, CA, US CMA & CS credentials. With 10+ years of experience, he’s a master ACCA tutor, IFRS trainer, adept in global financial standards, and a trusted advisor in navigating complex financial landscapes.
Finance and Accounting Interview Tips for Freshers

Finance and Accounting Interview Tips for Freshers

Are you a finance and accounting fresher looking to kickstart your career? Congratulations! Landing an interview is the first step towards achieving your professional goals. In this comprehensive guide, we will equip you with the knowledge and confidence you need to excel in your finance and accounting job interviews.

Basic Finance and Accounting Concepts

Before delving into the interview questions and answers, let’s review some fundamental finance and accounting concepts that are crucial for freshers entering this field. Understanding these basics will not only impress your interviewers but also serve as a strong foundation for your career.

 Assets and Liabilities

 Assets: Assets are anything of value that a company owns. They can be tangible, such as cash, inventory, or equipment, or intangible, like patents, trademarks, and goodwill. Assets are classified into two main categories:

  • Current Assets: These are assets that are expected to be converted into cash or used up within one year. Examples include cash, accounts receivable, and inventory.
  • Non-current Assets (Fixed Assets): These are long-term assets expected to provide value for more than a year. Examples include land, buildings, and machinery.

Liabilities: Liabilities represent a company’s financial obligations. They can be current, such as short-term loans or accounts payable, or non-current, like long-term debt. Understanding the types of liabilities is vital:

  • Current Liabilities: These are obligations due within one year, such as short-term loans and unpaid bills.
  • Non-current Liabilities: These are long-term obligations like bonds or mortgages.

Income and Expenses

  • Income: Income, also known as revenue, is the money a company earns from its operations. It is a key indicator of a company’s success in generating revenue streams. Income can come from various sources, including sales, interest, dividends, or royalties.
  • Expenses: Expenses represent the costs incurred in running the business. These can include wages, rent, utilities, materials, and other expenditures necessary to maintain and expand operations. Proper management of expenses is essential to maximize profitability.

Profit and Loss

  • Profit: Profit is the financial gain a company makes when its income exceeds its expenses. It’s the positive outcome of a company’s operations and is a key indicator of financial health. A company with consistent profits is generally considered stable and successful.=
  • Loss: A loss occurs when a company’s expenses surpass its income. It indicates that the company is not generating enough revenue to cover its costs. While losses are not uncommon in business, they should be managed and minimized to ensure long-term sustainability.

Cash Flow

Cash flow refers to the movement of money in and out of a company. It’s a vital aspect of financial management because it reflects a company’s liquidity, or its ability to pay its bills and debts as they come due.


Budgeting is the process of planning and managing a company’s financial resources. A budget serves as a financial roadmap, guiding a company’s spending and income expectations.

finance and accounting interview tips

finance and accounting interview tips,

Financial Statements

Financial statements are a vital aspect of finance and accounting. These documents provide a snapshot of a company’s financial performance and position. There are three primary types of financial statements:

   1. Income Statement (Profit and Loss Statement)

   – Purpose: It showcases a company’s revenues, costs, and profits over a specific period.

   – Key Elements: Revenue, expenses, and net income.

   2. Balance Sheet

   – Purpose: It outlines a company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity at a specific date.

   – Key Elements: Assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity.

   3. Cash Flow Statement

   – Purpose: It reveals the company’s cash inflow and outflow over a particular period.

   – Key Elements: Operating, investing, and financing activities.

Financial Statements Preparation

Preparing financial statements requires a deep understanding of accounting principles and practices. Here are some key points to keep in mind when preparing these statements:

  1. Accrual Accounting vs. Cash Accounting

  • Accrual Accounting: Recognizes transactions when they occur, not when cash changes hands.
  • Cash Accounting: Records transactions only when money is received or paid.

   2. Consistency

  • One fundamental principle in financial statement preparation is consistency. A company should use the same accounting methods and principles from one period to the next. This ensures that financial statements are comparable, and users can evaluate a company’s performance and position over time. Changes in accounting methods should be disclosed and justified in the financial statements.

   3. Relevance

  • When preparing financial statements, it’s essential to include relevant information that assists users in making informed decisions. Irrelevant or immaterial details can clutter financial statements and make it challenging for stakeholders to understand a company’s financial performance. The key is to present information that is meaningful and important to the users.

   4. Comparability

  • Comparability is another vital principle in financial statement preparation. Financial statements should be prepared in a manner that allows for easy comparison with other periods or with the financial statements of other companies. This facilitates benchmarking and trend analysis. Investors and creditors often rely on the ability to compare financial statements to assess a company’s financial health and growth prospects.

   5. Disclosure

  •  Financial statements should include clear and comprehensive disclosure of significant accounting policies and estimates. This information helps users understand how the financial statements were prepared and the judgments made by management. Key disclosures might include details about revenue recognition, depreciation methods, and the treatment of contingencies or uncertainties.

Accounting Cycle

The accounting cycle is a step-by-step process that businesses use to record and prepare financial statements. It typically involves the following stages:

   1. Identifying Transactions

  • The accounting cycle begins with the identification of financial transactions. These transactions can include sales, purchases, payments, receipts, and any other monetary activity within the organization. It is essential to capture all relevant transactions accurately. This step often involves using source documents like invoices, receipts, purchase orders, and bank statements.

   2. Journalizing

  • Once transactions are identified, they are recorded in a journal, which is often referred to as the general journal. The journal provides a chronological record of all transactions and includes important details such as the date of the transaction, the accounts affected, a description of the transaction, and the amount involved.

   3. Posting

  • After transactions are recorded in the journal, they must be transferred to the general ledger. The general ledger is a comprehensive record of all accounts used by the company. Each account, whether it’s an asset, liability, equity, revenue, or expense, has its dedicated ledger page.

   4. Trial Balance

  • A trial balance is prepared after all transactions have been posted to the general ledger. It’s a critical internal control tool used to ensure that debits equal credits in the accounting system. If the trial balance doesn’t balance, it indicates an error in the accounting records that must be corrected before moving forward.

   5. Adjusting Entries

  •  Adjusting entries are made to update the accounting records and reflect accrual accounting principles. These entries are necessary to recognize revenue and expenses when they are earned or incurred, regardless of when cash is exchanged.

   6. Financial Statements

  • After the adjusting entries have been made and the accounts are up-to-date, the next step is to prepare the financial statements. 

Closing Entries

Closing entries are essential in the accounting cycle to reset temporary accounts and prepare them for the next accounting period. Closing entries is the final step in the accounting cycle. They are necessary to reset the temporary accounts, such as revenue and expense accounts, to zero balances. The purpose of this is to prepare these accounts for the next accounting period. These entries include:

   1. Closing Revenue Accounts

   – Transferring the balance of revenue accounts to the income summary account.

   2. Closing Expense Accounts

   – Transferring the balance of expense accounts to the income summary account.

   3. Transferring to Capital Accounts

   – Moving the income summary balance to the owner’s capital account.


Auditing is the process of reviewing and evaluating a company’s financial records to ensure accuracy and compliance with accounting standards. It is typically done by an external auditor. Key points about auditing include:

   1. Internal vs. External Audits

   – Internal Audit: Conducted by employees within the organization.

   – External Audit: Performed by independent auditors.

   2. Auditor Independence

   – Auditors should be impartial and unbiased to ensure the integrity of the audit process.

   3. Auditor Reports

   – Auditors issue a report stating their findings, typically with opinions like “unqualified,” “qualified,” or “adverse.”

How Will Zell Help You

Now that you have gained a fundamental understanding of finance and accounting concepts and the accounting cycle, let’s discuss how Zell can help you prepare for your finance and accounting job interview. Zell offers a wide range of resources, including:

   1. Interview Coaching

   – Zell provides expert interview coaching to help you refine your interview skills, answer tough questions, and boost your confidence.

   2. Practice Interviews

   – Get hands-on experience with mock interviews, complete with feedback to help you improve.

   3. Interview Question Libraries

   – Access a comprehensive collection of finance and accounting interview questions to practice with.


In the competitive world of finance and accounting, a successful job interview can set the stage for a fulfilling career. We hope this guide has provided you with valuable insights into the key concepts and interview tips to help you make a lasting impression on your potential employers. Remember, preparation and confidence are your keys to success.


What’s the difference between assets and liabilities?
Assets are what a company owns, while liabilities are what it owes. Assets represent value, while liabilities are financial obligations. Assets can include things like cash, inventory, and property, while liabilities encompass debts, loans, and other financial obligations the company needs to repay.

What’s the purpose of an income statement?
The income statement, also known as the profit and loss statement, serves to show a company’s profitability over a specific period, typically a month, quarter, or year. It outlines the company’s revenues (sales, services, etc.) and subtracts its expenses (operating costs, interest, taxes, etc.) to determine its net income or loss. This statement is vital for assessing a company’s financial performance and making informed business decisions.

Can you explain the accounting cycle briefly?
The accounting cycle is a sequence of steps in the accounting process, starting with the identification of financial transactions and ending with the preparation of financial statements. The key stages include analyzing, journalizing, posting, preparing a trial balance, making adjusting entries, preparing financial statements, closing entries, and post-closing trial balance. The cycle ensures that a company’s financial records are accurate and complete.

What are adjusting entries, and why are they necessary?
Adjusting entries are journal entries made at the end of an accounting period to account for transactions that have occurred but haven’t been recorded in the general ledger. These entries ensure that revenues and expenses are matched to the correct accounting period, and that assets and liabilities are accurately represented on the balance sheet. Common adjusting entries include recognizing accrued revenue or expenses and allocating depreciation expenses.

Why do companies need external audits?
Companies opt for external audits to provide an independent and objective assessment of their financial statements and accounting practices. External auditors, who are not affiliated with the company, review financial records and procedures to ensure accuracy, compliance with accounting standards, and transparency. The audit results offer assurance to stakeholders, such as shareholders, creditors, and the public, regarding the reliability of the financial information presented by the company. This assurance can help build trust and confidence in the company’s financial reporting. Additionally, in some cases, external audits may be legally required for certain organizations or industries to ensure regulatory compliance.

7 Unforgivable Finance and Accounting Mistakes Everyone Makes

Finance and accounting are the lifeblood of any agency, and making errors in these regions may have a long way to accomplish consequences. In this newsletter, we’re going to shine a mild on 7 unforgivable finance and accounting mistakes that everyone, from people handling their budget to chief financial officer of establishment businesses, could make. More importantly, we’ll offer insights on a way to avoid these high-priced mistakes and ensure economic achievement. Let’s dive in!

Neglecting Regular Reconciliation:

The Mistake: Neglecting normal reconciliation of monetary statements, which include financial and accounting institution statements and ledger balances, can result in discrepancies and errors that are challenging to rectify.

The Solution: Implement a habitual reconciliation process. Regularly move-check your bank statements, ledgers, and financial records to make certain they align appropriately. Consider the use of accounting software to automate this mission.

Mismanaging Cash Flow:

The Mistake: Poor coins go with the flow management can cause financial crises. This includes no longer monitoring inflows and outflows efficaciously, resulting in late bills, ignored possibilities, or excessive borrowing.

The Solution: Create a detailed coin flow forecast to count on economic wishes. Keep an eye fixed on your cash reserves, prioritize bills, and negotiate favorable phrases with suppliers. Maintain a cash cushion for emergencies.

Overlooking Budgeting:

The Mistake: Failing to create and cling to finance can result in overspending, lack of economic manipulation, and ignored savings opportunities.

The Solution: Establish comprehensive finances that cover earnings, prices, savings, and investments. Regularly evaluate and adjust the budget to align with your monetary dreams and converting situations.

Ignoring Tax Planning:

The Mistake: Ignoring tax planning can result in overpaying taxes or facing felony headaches. This mistake may be especially luxurious for corporations and high-profit people.

The Solution: Consult with a tax professional to increase a tax-green method. Stay knowledgeable about tax legal guidelines and incentives which can reduce your tax liability at the same time as the last complaint.

Failing to Monitor Debt:

The Mistake: Neglecting debt control can cause high-hobby payments, broken credit scores, and economic pressure.

The Solution: Create a debt compensation plan that prioritizes excessive-interest debts. Monitor your credit score often, and negotiate lower hobby rates when viable. Avoid accumulating excessive debt.

Inadequate Record-Keeping:

The Mistake: Lax report-preserving can result in misplaced monetary information, difficulties all through audits, and criminal complications.

The Solution: Maintain prepared and specified monetary facts. Use Cloud computing accounting software programs to track profits, charges, and transactions. Store crucial files in a steady and available manner.

Not Seeking Professional Help:

The Mistake: Failing to search for professional recommendations while facing complicated monetary situations or funding decisions can result in costly errors.

The Solution: Consult monetary advisors, accountants, or legal professionals when needed. Their information assists you to make knowledgeable picks and avoid pitfalls.

How Will Zell Help You:

Financial Insights: Zell Education offers customized economic insights to help you make informed decisions.
Expense Tracking: Use Zell to track your charges and hold a clear financial picture.
Budgeting: Zell can assist in developing and handling budgets to stay heading in the right direction.
Tax Planning: Zell offers reminders and guidelines for green tax-making plans.
Debt Management: Zell offers debt tracking features to help you control and pay down debts.
Record-Keeping: Store and arrange vital financial documents securely with Zell Education as your economic best friend, you can steer clear of these commonplace finance and accounting benefits and achieve your economic dreams with self-belief.


Avoiding these unforgivable finance and accounting errors is important for your financial well-being. Whether you are managing private finances or overseeing a corporation’s monetary fitness, staying vigilant and proactive can make all of the distinction. Remember that studying from these mistakes is similarly vital; they can function as treasured classes for your monetary adventure.


How often ought to I reconcile my economic statements?
Regular reconciliation, ideally month-to-month, is recommended to seize errors early..

What’s the importance of budgeting in private finance?
Budgeting helps control spending, shop for goals, and plan for the future..

What are the advantages of tax planning?
Tax planning can lessen your tax legal responsibility, growth savings, and make certain compliance with tax legal guidelines..

Can Zell assist with funding choices?
Zell presents monetary insights but does not replace expert funding recommendation..

How can I get right of entry to my economic facts securely with Zell?
Zell offers stable record garage and access with encryption and user authentication capabilities.


Partham Barot is an ACCA-certified professional. showcasing his expertise in finance and accountancy. he’s revolutionising education by focusing on practical, real-world skills. Partham’s achievements underscore his commitment to elevating educational standards and empowering the next generation of professionals.